2 edition of Coal surface mining reclamation costs found in the catalog.
Coal surface mining reclamation costs
Robert J. Evans
by U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines : for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. in [Washington]
Written in English
|Statement||by Robert J. Evans and John R. Bitler ; Eastern Field Operation Center--Field and Environmental Activities.|
|Series||Information circular - Bureau of Mines ; 8695, Information circular (United States. Bureau of Mines) -- 8695.|
|Contributions||Bitler, John R., United States. Bureau of Mines.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||, ii, 50 p. :|
|Number of Pages||50|
Still, said Joe Pizarchik, who between and served as the longest-running director of the U.S. Office of Surface Mining and Reclamation, the longer state governments and regulators delay. The inspector was from the Railroad Commission’s Surface Mining and Reclamation Division. coal mining became popular in the s as technological advances made it .
Title V of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act Protecting the Environment. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) balances the need to protect the environment from the adverse effects of surface coal mining with the Nation's need for coal as an essential energy source. It ensures that coal mining operations are conducted in an environmentally responsible manner and. Lands and waters which were mined for coal or which were affected by such mining, wastebanks, coal processing, or other coal mining processes and abandoned or left in an inadequate reclamation status prior to Aug. 3, , and for which there is no continuing reclamation responsibility under state or .
Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation. Surface coal mining involves disturbing overlying rock layers (overburden) to expose and extract coal reserves using the area mining method wherein the overburden above the uppermost coal seam and the innerburden between the lower coal seams are removed in parallel strips (pits) across the coalfield until the area is mined. The groups said the DEP failed to notify the U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement if significant funding or budget changes were to affect the enforcement and administration of the special reclamation fund. The DEP in March sued a company that acquired more than mining permits from Patriot Coal Corp.’s bankruptcy.
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The transportation sector in the model attempts to determine the actual routes that would be followed in coal shipping. The main importance of surface mining reclamation requirements for underground production may be for new investment on steep slopes in Appalachia, since reclamation costs are the highest for steep slope surface by: 7.
The largest Brazilian coal mine, called Candiota mine, is located in South Brazil, with an estimated reserve about billion tons. Since latean experiment located at a reclaimed site in a coal mining area was conducted, in which a research group from the Federal University of Pelotas has been conducting a long-term experiment on soil quality with different plants species, such as.
In response to a congressional request, GAO assessed the availability and cost of surety reclamation bonds for surface coal mine operators in four states to determine the reasonableness of rate-setting found that: (1) sincemine operators have had difficulty in obtaining reclamation bonds because of a decrease in the number of companies underwriting the bonds; (2).
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of (SMCRA) provides that, as a prerequisite for obtaining a coal mining permit, an applicant must post a reclamation bond to ensure that the regulatory authority has sufficient funds to reclaim the site in the case the permittee fails to complete the approved reclamation plan.
Under SMCRA (c) there are several avenues for coal mining. InERP bought more than mining permits from Patriot Mining.
Since then, according to the DEP, the company racked up “hundreds of violations of surface mining. But they will continue amid intense public debate, much of it centering on the standards that will govern reclamation.
In this book leading authorities address the economic, environmental, and legal ramifications of land reclamation following coal surface mining, review the status of the coal industry, and look at possible future developments.
Priority-3 problems, focused on environmental control, make up % of all reclamation costs. Coal mine reclamation costs for P-3 problems are estimated at $, for Wills Creek Lake, Million for Seneca Lake and $ Million for Piedmont Lake. Similar reclamation costs for the other lakes could not be estimated due to lack of information.
Although dramatic changes in landscape may sometimes occur as a result of open mining, underground coal extraction on occasion causes such gross land disturbance that reclamation runs into much greater difficulties and costs than in open mining.
If geographical, social and other conditions are similar, such land characteristics as the physical and chemical properties of the rocks. Every surface mining reclamation supervisor shall be paid not less than $30, per year. Every surface mining reclamation inspector shall be paid not less than $25, per year.
§ Duties of surface mining reclamation inspectors and inspectors in training. Mining Cost Service continues to be a useful reference on a wide range of topics for early stage mine planning through to ‘fill the gaps’ on more detailed studies.
Mining Cost Service provides an independent source for information on equipment, quantities and cost for a significant number of mining methods and range of production rates. Reclamation processes. As part of the life cycle of a surface coal mine, completed mine areas must undergo mining ends, operators must restore the land to its approximate original contour (AOC) or leave the land graded and suitable for a “higher and better” post-mining land use (PMLU) that has been approved as part of the original mining permit application.
The report, titled Coal Mine Cleanup Works, estimates that cleaning up and reclaiming coal mine sites in Montana, North Dakota, Colorado, and Wyoming could generate between 4, and 9, “job-years.” That adds up to approximately 65 percent of the current surface mining workforce in the four-state region, meaning that a large percentage.
Since the late s, coal companies have been required under the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act to guarantee that if they go out of business, the costs of cleaning up the significant damage left in coal mining’s wake, from routine destruction like the removal of topsoil, rock and forest to more severe problems like acid.
The groups said the DEP failed to notify the U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement if significant funding or budget changes were to affect the enforcement and administration of.
Get this from a library. Coal surface mining reclamation costs: Appalachian and Midwestern Coal Supply Districts. [Robert J Evans; John R Bitler; United States.
Bureau of Mines.]. The federal government is required to regulate surface coal mining on federal lands (which include 60 percent of the coal reserves in the West), but can enter into cooperative agreements with states with approved programs.
Self-bonding. Many states do not require large mining companies to post a surety bond for the costs of mine reclamation. Surface mining for coal in Missouri has a year history beginning with the use of steam shovels in the early s, There is potential desirable coal in Missouri because of it bituminous rank, but the coal beds are relatively thin and are a high cost to mine.
Early surface coal mining fueled the energy needed for regional economies to grow and significantly contributed to the economy of. (%) of Kentucky's electricity is generated from coal. Environment All surface-mined land today is reclaimed equal to or better than it was prior to mining.
Kentucky mining companies have received 25 national reclamation awards from thru for outstanding achievement in surface mining. The Surface Mine Reclamation Program (SMRP) is part of the Washington Geological Survey within the Washington Department of Natural Resources. The program was created in after the legislature created the Surface Mining Act.
The SMRP makes sure that all lands and waters within the state are protected and reclaimed after mining is complete. When mining to a maximum stripping ratio of 30, the cost of providing basic reclamation is estimated to be $, $, and $/ton of coal mined, for 15/sup 0/, 20/sup 0/, and 25/sup 0/ terrain, respectively.
The cost of providing full reclamation under the same conditions is estimated to be $, $, and $/ton of coal mined. For example, since the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in the U.S., direct fees have been collected by government agencies from existing coal mining companies.
Various states and Native American tribes have used over US$ billion of those funds to reclaim almost “, acres of hazardous high. Books. Celebrities.
program whose purpose is to cover the costs of coal mine reclamation, according to a news release. the U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation .Improved extraction and reclamation equipment, including integrated mining and reclamation systems, are required in surface mining.
9. A national energy policy that defines the role of coal in meeting future energy requirements is needed to encourage industry to make the long-range capital commitments necessary to develop domestic coal reserves.